object

type

Type checking predicates. User extensible. New types can be defined by adding clauses for the type/1 and check/2 multifile predicates.

Author: Paulo Moura
Version: 1.26
Date: 2019/6/10
Compilation flags:
static, context_switching_calls, complements(restrict)
Uses:
Remarks:
  • Logtalk specific types: entity, object, protocol, category, entity_identifier, object_identifier, protocol_identifier, category_identifier, event, predicate

  • Prolog module related types (when the backend compiler supports modules): module, module_identifier, qualified_callable

  • Prolog base types: term, var, nonvar, atomic, atom, number, integer, float, compound, callable, ground

  • Atom derived types: atom(CharSet), atom(CharSet,Length), non_empty_atom, non_empty_atom(CharSet), boolean, character, character(CharSet), char, char(CharSet), operator_specifier

  • Number derived types: positive_number, negative_number, non_positive_number, non_negative_number

  • Float derived types: positive_float, negative_float, non_positive_float, non_negative_float, probability

  • Integer derived types: positive_integer, negative_integer, non_positive_integer, non_negative_integer, byte, character_code, character_code(CharSet), code, code(CharSet), operator_priority

  • List types (compound derived types): list, non_empty_list, partial_list, list_or_partial_list, list(Type), list(Type,Length), list(Type,Min,Max), list(Type,Length,Min,Max), non_empty_list(Type), codes, chars

  • Difference list types (compound derived types): difference_list, difference_list(Type)

  • Other compound derived types: predicate_indicator, non_terminal_indicator, predicate_or_non_terminal_indicator, clause, clause_or_partial_clause, grammar_rule, pair, pair(KeyType,ValueType), cyclic, acyclic

  • Stream types: stream, stream_or_alias, stream(Property), stream_or_alias(Property)

  • Other types: between(Type,Lower,Upper), property(Type,LambdaExpression), one_of(Type,Set), var_or(Type), ground(Type), types(Types), type

  • predicate type notes: This type is used to check for an object public predicate specified as Object::Functor/Arity.

  • boolean type notes: The two value of this type are the atoms true and false.

  • Stream types notes: In the case of the stream(Property) and stream_or_alias(Property) types, Property must be a valid stream property.

  • order type notes: The three possible values of this type are the single character atoms <, =, and >.

  • character_code type notes: This type takes into account Unicode support by the backend compiler. When Unicode is supported, it distinguishes between BMP and full support. When Unicode is not supported, it assumes a byte representation for characters.

  • between(Type, Lower, Upper) type notes: The type argument allows distinguishing between numbers and other types. It also allows choosing between mixed integer/float comparisons and strict float or integer comparisons. The term is type-checked before testing for interval membership.

  • property(Type, Lambda) type notes: Verifies that Term satisfies a property described using a lambda expression of the form [Parameter]>>Goal. The lambda expression is applied in the context of user. The term is type-checked before calling the goal.

  • one_of(Type, Set) type notes: For checking if a given term is an element of a set. The set is represented using a list. The term is type-checked before testing for set membership.

  • var_or(Type) notes: Allows checking if a term is either a variable or a valid value of the given type.

  • ground(Type) notes: Allows checking if a term is ground and a valid value of the given type.

  • types(Types) notes: Allows checking if a term is a valid value for one of the types in a list of types.

  • type notes: Allows checking if a term is a valid type.

  • qualified_callable notes: Allows checking if a term is a possibly module-qualified callable term. When the term is qualified, it also checks that the qualification modules are type correct. When the term is not qualified, its semantics are the same as the callable type.

  • Design choices: The main predicates are valid/2 and check/3. These are defined using the predicate check/2. Defining clauses for check/2 instead of valid/2 gives the user full control of exception terms without requiring an additional predicate.

  • Error context: The built-in execution-context method context/1 can be used to provide the calling context for errors when using the predicate check/3.

  • Registering new types: New types can be registered by defining clauses for the type/1 and check/2 multifile predicates. Clauses for both predicates must have a bound first argument to avoid introducing spurious choice-points when type-checking terms.

  • Meta-types: Meta-types are types that have one or more sub-types. E.g. var_or(Type). The sub-types of a meta-type can be enumerated by defining a clause for the meta_type/3 multifile predicate.

  • Character sets: When testing character or character codes, or terms that contain them (e.g. atom), it is possible to choose a character set (ascii_identifier, ascii_printable, ascii_full, byte, unicode_bmp, or unicode_full) using the parameterizable types.

  • Caveats: The type argument (and any type parameterization) to the predicates is not type-checked (or checked for consistency) for performance reasons.

Public predicates

type/1

Table of defined types. A new type can be registered by defining a clause for this predicate and adding a clause for the check/2 multifile predicate.

Compilation flags:
static, multifile
Template:
type(Type)
Mode and number of proofs:
type(?callable) - zero_or_more

meta_type/3

Table of defined meta-types. A registered type that is a meta-type can be described by defining a clause for this predicate to enumerate its sub-types and optional values in case of a single sub-type.

Compilation flags:
static, multifile
Template:
meta_type(MetaType,SubTypes,Values)
Mode and number of proofs:
meta_type(?callable,-list,-list) - zero_or_more

valid/2

True if the given term is of the specified type. Fails otherwise.

Compilation flags:
static
Template:
valid(Type,Term)
Mode and number of proofs:
valid(@callable,@term) - zero_or_one

check/3

True if the given term is of the specified type. Throws an error otherwise using the format error(Error, Context). For the possible values of Error see the check/2 predicate.

Compilation flags:
static
Template:
check(Type,Term,Context)
Mode and number of proofs:
check(@callable,@term,@term) - one_or_error

check/2

True if the given term is of the specified type. Throws an error otherwise. A new type can be added by defining a clause for this predicate and registering it by adding a clause for the type/1 multifile predicate.

Compilation flags:
static, multifile
Template:
check(Type,Term)
Mode and number of proofs:
check(@callable,@term) - one_or_error
Exceptions:
Term is not bound as required:
instantiation_error
Term is bound but not of the specified type:
type_error(Type, Term)
Term is the of the correct type but not in the specified domain:
domain_error(Domain, Term)
Term is the of the correct type and domain but the resource it represents does not exist:
existence_error(Type, Term)

Protected predicates

(see entity ancestors)

Private predicates

(see entity ancestors)